Whole Mitochondrial DNA Genome Sequencing
A new method for sequencing the mitochondrial genome using
Next Generation Sequencing Platforms.
mtDNA or Mitochondrial DNA is the DNA located inside these mitochondria which only accounts for a small fraction of the whole DNA found in a eukaryotic cell since most of the DNA comes from the cell’s nucleus. In addition, among plants and algae, plastids such as chloroplasts also are contributing for the total DNA.
The mitochondrial genome has its own genomic system within the eukaryotic cells that is separate from the nuclear genomic system. Moreover, its genetic inheritance in most animals is uniparental without any recombination from the other parent’s mitochondrial genes. While most researchers tend to overlook it due to its small size, the mitochondrial genome contains genes that are essential for cellular energetics and survival.
Whole genome sequencing (WGS) has been the dominant sequencing approach to identify genetic variants in recent decades, but most studies only focus on the variants of the nuclear genome. Whole genome sequencing is also costly and time consuming. Meanwhile, sequencing specifically targeted toward mtDNA is generally used for diagnostics and it is relatively cheaper compared to WGS.